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Acne – what is it, what are the types and treatments?

Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands, which develops as a result of blockage of hair follicles in the skin. It can often lead to reduced self-esteem due to the imperfections on the face that occur. How to deal with this ailment? Check how to choose the right treatment method and enjoy a beautiful, flawless complexion!

Acne

What is acne?

Acne is a skin disease that arises when hair follicles clog up with pus and dead skin cells. Most often it occurs on the face, back and chest. It can permanently affect self-esteem and reduced self-esteem. It causes the formation of white and black blackheads or pimples. It is most common among teenagers, although it can affect people of all ages.

What are the causes of acne?

  • Hormonal disorders
  • Stress
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Effects of bacteria and free radicals
  • Effects of drugs or other substances
  • Improper diet
  • Lack or poor care
  • Climate change and environmental pollution

Type of acne

Juvenile/common acne: papular and blackhead – the most popular type. Skin disease that occurs during puberty. Under the influence of hormonal changes, there is an excessive stimulation of the activity of the glands.

Rosacea – A chronic disease that develops on the basis of vascular disorders and seborrhea. Mostly it occurs in women.

Hormonal acne – It usually appears during pregnancy, menopause or immediately before menstruation. Due to the fact that it is provoked by hormonal disorders, it most often occurs in women.

Cystic acne – a form of acne consisting of inflammatory bacterial nodules. It primarily affects skin with a relatively large number of fatty glands, including the face, upper chest and back.

Baby acne – Baby acne is a common, usually transient skin disease that appears on the face or body of a child. Small red or white papules or pimples appear on it.

Poststeroid acne – is characterized by large lumps, which are caused by long-term consumption of drugs and substances containing, for example, bromine, iodine, steroid hormones.

Self-damaging acne – This is a type of acne caused by scratching skin eruptions. It can lead to inflammation and long-term scarring.

Occupational acne – It can occur in people who have frequent contact with smoky and dusty surfaces. It is also caused by frequent contact with substances such as oil or grease. It is manifested by black blackheads in the area of the forearms and genitals.

Acne induced – This is a type of acne caused by the use of individual substances or drugs.

Purulent acne – There are similar symptoms as in the case of acne vulgaris and, in addition, purulent cysts, papules and pustules.

Focused acne – This is a type mainly found in men. This type is manifested by purulent cysts and deep infiltrates.

Cicatricial acne – It can occur separately, or together with purulent or focused acne. A sign of this acne are the formation of “keloids” on the face.

How to get rid of acne?

How to get rid of acne?

At the very beginning it is very important to determine the causes of acne. To a large extent, it will depend on which method will work best. The treatment of acne itself can be done both externally (local treatment) and internally. When it comes to local treatment, various types of cleansing gels are most often used, which contain salicylic acid, thymol, benzoyl peroxide, zinc, and vitamin A. If the symptoms of acne are purulent lesions, then it is worth using ointments based on erythromycin, neomycin or clindamycin. Treatment of this type is usually ad hoc. If we want to start long-term therapy, then the problem should be affected from the inside. In this case, we have at our disposal all kinds of essential oils, acne tablets and dietary supplements that nourish our body, provide adequate hydration and have a soothing effect on the skin. Examples of such products are:

It is also worth introducing healthy eating habits into our lives and increasing physical activity. This does not have a direct effect on acne itself, however, it will help to a large extent to take care of the condition of the skin, which in turn will help solve the problem with acne.

Cosmetics for acne skin

At the very beginning it is necessary to say what creams we should categorically avoid. If we have acne skin, it will certainly be inappropriate to use oily cosmetics that can have a comedogenic effect – they will clog pores, which will result in the formation of blackheads. It is also worth paying attention to the fact that the composition of cosmetics does not include such substances as alcohol or fragrances.

We already know what creams not to use. So what will be the appropriate ones? Cream for acne skin should be primarily “light” and have antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We can also use exfoliating cosmetics. The ingredients that we should look for in such cosmetics are: retinol, AHA and BHA acids, zinc, plant extracts, hyaluronic acid.

Diet for acne

What foods are best for your skin?

Foods rich in vitamins C and E

These vitamins help neutralize free radicals that can damage cells and contribute to inflammation in the body. Foods rich in these vitamins are citrus fruits (e.g. oranges), leafy greens (e.g. spinach) and potatoes.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids can reduce inflammation throughout the body, including skin cells. Omega 3 deficiency can contribute to the formation of new pimples around the mouth (about oral dermatitis). Examples of good sources of omega-3 fatty acids are salmon, tuna and walnuts.

Probiotics

Probiotics are living bacteria that help maintain a balance between good and bad bacteria in our body. Probiotics have been shown to improve some of the immune responses associated with acne exacerbation.

What products to avoid?

Unfortunately, there are many products that negatively affect the condition of our skin and thus promote the formation of acne lesions. The most important products that we should avoid, or at least not overdo it with their quantity, are:

  • Milk and dairy products
  • Salty snacks
  • Spicy dishes and spices
  • Foods with a high glycemic index

Acne skin care

Proper care of acne skin should begin with the introduction of a properly balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce stress. Already these activities should positively affect the condition of our skin and help it in effective regeneration. The next step should be the use of cosmetics and dietary supplements that have the ability to regulate the work of the sebaceous glands and additionally take care of the appropriate level of hydration. A very important aspect of care is cleansing the skin. We constantly have to remove excess sebum and bacteria that are on its surface and inside the pores. Cosmetics with cleansing and astringent properties can help us in this. Facial cleansing should be done 2 times a day – in the morning and in the evening, and in addition, once a week you can apply an exfoliating peeling. Thanks to this, we will remove dead epidermis, in place of which a new one will be created.

How to mask acne?

How to mask acne?

Acne masking is a temporary method and should only be used in exceptional situations. If we have a planned meeting, and unexpectedly acne appears on our face, it is obvious that we need a method that will work “here and now”. However, in the long run, you should think about how to remove acne and prevent its formation in the future.

It is extremely important to choose cosmetics for acne skin makeup, which should be adapted to the needs of skin with imperfections. Also important is their lightweight formula and oil-free composition. Covering foundations and powders can clog pores and contribute to the exacerbation of acne; special cosmetics for demanding skin contain salicylic acid, thanks to which they improve its condition, while ensuring good coverage.

Any sponges, brushes, applicators and other instruments that are used to do everyday makeup should be cleaned and sanitized regularly.

The next step is to choose a powder. If we have a mixed type of skin, and the imperfections are not too large, then pressed powder will be ideal, which will even out the skin color and provide a matte, powdery finish. If our skin is oily and imperfections are more visible, we recommend using a fat-free and covering foundation for oily and acne skin. Remember not to overdo it with the amount of cosmetics applied. Too much will block the pores, and will emphasize imperfections. For covering up pimples, a concealer with antibacterial properties will be useful.

How to get rid of acne scars?

What type of scar treatment will be the most suitable for us should be chosen by a dermatologist. It will help determine the type of scar, its depth and the general condition of the skin. This type of information will help in the selection of the method of scar removal.

There are several ways to remove scars. One of the most popular is dermabrasion – mechanical removal of scars along with the skin. The top layer of the epidermis is wiped off, and thanks to the fact that the body is stimulated to create new cells and regenerate tissues, new, healthy skin cells will appear in this place.

Another method is laser therapy. Microdamages are produced on the skin with a beam of light that inhibit the scarring process. According to many specialists, this is the method considered the most effective.

If we do not decide on aesthetic medicine treatments, we can also carry out therapy using pharmacological agents. They usually come in the form of a gel or cream. The regeneration process is much longer and, unfortunately, it is usually not possible to completely remove the scars.